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Mass balance in .NET Integrated barcode code39 in .NET Mass balance




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Mass balance using barcode integrating for .net vs 2010 control to generate, create code39 image in .net vs 2010 applications. GS1 supported barcodes nally at the end of the Code 39 Full ASCII for .NET next melt season to obtain both the summer and the net balances. Snow density measurements must also be made in order to convert the winter accumulation and summer snow melt to water equivalents.

We de ne bs (x,y,z) as the speci c summer balance, bw (x,y,z) as the speci c winter balance, and bn (x,y,z) as the speci c net balance. Clearly,. bn = bs + bw (3.1). and the overall state of bar code 39 for .NET health of the glacier can be evaluated from:. Bn = (bs + bw )d A (3.2). where A is the area of t Visual Studio .NET Code-39 he glacier and Bn is the net balance. Bn is often normalized to the area of the glacier, thus: bn = Bn /A.

When Bn or bn are positive, the glacier is said to have a positive mass balance; if this condition persists for some years, the glacier will advance, and conversely. Thus Bn is an important parameter to measure and to understand, and to this end we now consider meteorological factors in uencing its components, bs and bw . It is convenient to restrict our discussion to variations in bs and bw with elevation, z.

This is not normally valid in practice because of the effects of drifting and shading, which result in lateral variations in both accumulation and melt. It is common to plot bn (z) as a function of elevation; this is illustrated with data from a valley glacier in the Austrian Alps, Hintereisferner, in Figure 3.5a.

The curve labeled o in this gure represents the situation during a year in which the mass budget is balanced, or Bn = 0. (Despite the low values of bn at higher elevations, A bn d A = 0 in this instance because, as is true of most valley glaciers, the width of Hintereisferner increases with elevation.) Curves labeled + and represent years of exceptionally positive or negative mass balance, respectively.

Note that melting normally increases nearly linearly with decreasing elevation, so the lower parts of the curves in Figure 3.5a are relatively straight. However, at higher elevations in this particular case, snow fall decreases with elevation, resulting in curvature in the upper parts of the plot.

The differences between the o curve and the and + curves are shown in Figures 3.5b and c, respectively. These differences are referred to as the budget imbalance, bi (Meier, 1962).

In years of exceptionally negative bn (Figure 3.5b), bi typically increases with decreasing elevation; this means that such years are normally a consequence of unusually high summer melt. Conversely, unusually positive budget years commonly result from exceptionally high winter accumulations.

Mass balance principles (a) 3600. s ( ). Elevation, m 3200 s (+). bi( ). bi (+). 2400 6. Specific net budget, Mg m 2 Imbalance and standard deviation, kg m 2 bi = budget imbalance s = standard deviation Figure 3.5. (a) Speci c bar code 39 for .

NET net budget, bn , plotted against elevation for Hintereisferner. Curve o is for a year of balanced mass budget, while curves and + are for years of exceptionally negative or positive budget, respectively. (b) and (c) Difference between curve o and curves and + , respectively.

(After Kuhn, 1981, Figure 1. Reproduced with permission of the author and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences.).

(Figure 3.5c). Budget ye ars that are only moderately positive or negative can result from deviations of either accumulation or melt from their values in years when the budget is balanced.

Programs of mass balance measurements normally continue for several years. Cumulative mass balances can then be calculated by summing the annual values of Bn . There are two ways of doing this, however.

In the conventional approach, A in Equation (3.2) should be adjusted annually to re ect expansion or shrinkage of the glacier. (In practice, new maps of the glacier are not prepared every year, and as A varies slowly it is more common to use the same value of A for several years and then adjust it when a new map is made.

) In the reference-surface approach (Elsberg et al., 2001), on the other hand, A is the area of the glacier surface at a particular time, such as the time of the rst mass balance survey if a good map exists for that time, and is not changed during the course of the program. Furthermore, the annual measurements are then adjusted to the level of the reference surface with the use of measured or estimated values of d B n /dz.

The conventional approach is better for hydrological forecasting and other applications when the actual change in glacier volume is desired. However, for studies of climate, the reference-surface.
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