See above, pp. 108 9. in .NET Creation 2d Data Matrix barcode in .NET See above, pp. 108 9.

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See above, pp. 108 9. using visual studio .net toencode 2d data matrix barcode in web,windows application Beaware of Malicious QR Codes Dio 53.14.2. The Augustan empire: imperium Romanum those of the Visual Studio .NET ECC200 emperor. In addition to this, the role of the senate in determining which provinciae were to be lled disappeared entirely, in that the considerable exibility in the structure was all at the disposal of the emperor.

The areas that were denominated as people s provinciae were speci ed by Augustus, and, although these were added to during his reign through the transfer of Baetica in Spain, Gallia Narbonensis and Cyprus to control by pro-magistrates, this was the result of a decision by the emperor not the senate. This is hardly surprising, given the dominance of Augustus in all matters military, but the result is to underline the function of the process in providing individuals to ll a de ned set of posts. The allotment still went on in a senatorial context, but little is known of the details of how it was carried out.

107 It is not even known how the pool from which the allocations were made was constituted, though a remark by Dio indicates that initially there might be more candidates than posts. Dio, describing the situation as it was in his own day, writes that at the beginning all who ful lled the requirement that they had held a magistracy ve years earlier might be appointed, even if there were more candidates than provinces, but that eventually the emperor limited the number to that of the posts to be lled and named those from whom the choice was to be made because some had been guilty of bad governance in their provinces.108 There is no indication of when this alteration was made, but the clear implication of Dio s remark is that at the beginning the list of former praetors was not xed by the emperor, but also that in most cases there were not more candidates than posts.

In any case, Dio is explicit that for the two provinciae of Africa and Asia Augustus laid down that the individuals chosen should be former consuls and that the remainder of the provincial posts should go to former praetors.109 Certainly in. Talbert (1984), 348 9.. Dio 53.14.3 4. Dio 53.14.1 2. The Language of Empire the case of A frica and Asia, it seems that these were offered to the two senior consulares who had not already held them, and that they balloted for them.110 All this suggests that what was happening in the people s provinciae, as in the emperor s, was a matter not (as in the republican period) of nding jobs for the boys, but of nding boys for the jobs. Another indication of the different way in which provinciae were thought of is the manner in which new areas were named as provinciae.

Earlier the creation of a provincia had meant the naming of a command or responsibility by the senate, often at the outset of military activity in the region, and, at least until the late 60s bc, it had not constituted any formal claim to annexation.111 As has been seen, Strabo s language indicates that for him the making of an eparchia or an area s being or becoming one was indeed an addition of territory to the empire.112 Here again he echoes the practice and language of the period: Augustus himself, in reference to his decision not to incorporate Armenia after the death of its king, says that he could have made it a provincia (facere provinciam), a phrase that occurs in this sense only once before this, when the writer of the Caesarian De bello Africo describes how Caesar made a provincia of the kingdom of the defeated king Juba.

113 New provinciae now named for the rst time are invariably those of the emperor, as Dio notes,114 and they are often the result of subdivision of existing provinciae rather than being declared at the outset of military activity. Thus in Spain the former two provinciae of Hispania citerior and Hispania ulterior are rearranged, with the latter being divided into Baetica and Lusitania, a. 110 113. Talbert (1984 ), 349. 111 Pp. 23 5 and p.

111. 112 Above, n. 103.

Augustus, Res Gestae 27: c[u]m possem facere provinciam . Compare B Afr. 97.

1: ex regnoque provincia facta . See above, p. 85.

The phrase becomes more frequent in the decades that follow (pp. 150 1; and Suet. Jul.

35.1). Dio 53.


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