What fear does to a person in .NET Embed Data Matrix in .NET What fear does to a person

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10.4 What fear does to a person generate, create datamatrix none for .net projects Microsoft .NET Compact Framework following Aristote .net framework datamatrix 2d barcode lian usage. Motion can denote a change in quantity, a change in quality, or a change from one place to another (see 2.

3). In describing the somatic effects of passions as likenesses of the proper act of sensitive appetite, Aquinas is drawing upon a complex metaphysics that traces multiple relations between soul and body, act and potency, form and matter, original and likeness. An objection to Aquinas that wants to persuade cannot merely assert that he is unclear.

It must attempt (as Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, and Hume do) to articulate an alternative metaphysics and a correspondingly different theory of the passions. When Knuuttila detects terminological vacillation in the ST, he is pointing to what Aquinas would understand as analogical predication. In Article 2, Thomas asks whether fear produces persons inclined toward deliberation.

The sed contra quotes Aristotle s Rhetoric: Fear produces deliberative persons (2.5, 1383a6). When we are afraid, we lack confidence in our own ability to repel the threatening evil, and therefore seek counsel all the more eagerly.

Most of all do men seek counsel when they are afraid (

If seeking counsel is generally good, and fear inspires us to seek counsel, then fear is good. To this extent, the passion is healthy. In the response s second part, Aquinas shifts the emphasis.

Those under the influence of fear may be eager to seek counsel, but they do not themselves make wise counselors. The power of deliberating well requires the ability to see things as they are. To a man affected according to some passion, a thing seems greater or smaller than it is according to the truth of the thing as what is loved seems better to a person in love, and what is feared seems more terrifying to the person who is afraid (44. When it is governed by reason, a passion can be utilized for the sake of good ( 4.

3). But when a person is affected by it when she is possessed by the passion rather than possessing it her perspective is inevitably distorted. A parent possessed by fear, for example, will waste psychic energy worrying about things that are not ultimately dangerous.

Aquinas frank admission that fear distorts the perspectives of those affected by it recalls the argument of the Stoics. In book 3 of the Tusculan Disputations (3.11.

25), Cicero defines fear (metus) as the opinion of a great impending evil (opinio magni mali impendentis). Book 4 expands this to the opinion of an impending evil, which seems to be intolerable (4.7.

14). The similarity of these definitions to Damascene s formula is not accidental, as Cicero may be its indirect source. The result of fear, Cicero claims, is a certain withdrawal and flight of the soul (recessum quendam animi et fugam) (4.

7.15). As if to confirm his intention to engage the Stoic argument, Aquinas has the second objector quote Cicero: fear.

Fear drives away all t VS .NET Data Matrix barcode hought and dislocates the mind (44.2 arg.

2).23 In reply, Aquinas does not deny the objection s force. In the extreme case of panic fear, a man s thoughts are so disturbed that he is incapable of receiving any counsel at all.

Only when his fear is small (parvus) is a man able to receive counsel. Fear is small, Thomas argues, when it does not much disturb the reason (nec multum rationem conturbet) (44.2 ad 2m).

Aquinas emphasis on the helpfulness of fear seems to contrast sharply with the Stoic doctrine that fear is simply bad, to be avoided by the sapiens at all costs. But the contrast is superficial. Cicero himself acknowledges the existence of an emotion, cautio, that resembles fear, but is amenable to reason (Tusculan Disputations 4.

6.13). To observe a deeper convergence between Aquinas and the Stoics is congruent with Thomas s own view (itself an echo of Augustine) that the debate between the Stoics and the Peripatetics is largely verbal: while the difference appears great in words, it is nevertheless in reality none at all, or but little, if we consider the intent of either school (24. Against this Augustinian background, we see why Aquinas wants both to affirm the Aristotelian claim that fear produces deliberative persons and to agree with Cicero that the fear is distortive and dangerous if not governed by reason.

Before Aquinas offers a final word on this debate, he considers another somatic effect of fear. Article 3 asks whether fear produces trembling (tremor). Since ordinary experience seems to provide a clear answer to this question, one may wonder what is at issue.

Three possible explanations may be given. First, by introducing trembling into the discussion, Thomas prepares the reader for the Pauline sed contra ( with fear and trembling work out your salvation ) that closes the Question. Second, Article 3 is the only Article within the entire sequence of Questions devoted to the passions in which Cicero appears by himself in the sed contra.

The use of Cicero in the sed contra continues the dialectic initiated by the last Article. It also suggests that Aquinas considers Cicero a valuable observer of the effects of the passions, even if his basic anthropology is too crude, failing as it does to distinguish the intellectual appetite from the sensitive appetite. Third, Aquinas may be commenting ironically on sophistic attempts to use the latest scientific theories to prove that fear.

Timor est excutie ns cogitata, et mentem a suo loco removet, ut Tullius dicit, in IV de Tusculanis quaest. The exact words quoted by Aquinas do not appear in the text of book 4 of the Tusculan Disputations. The quotation appears to be a conflation of the description of conturbatio as metum excutientem cogitata and that of pavor as metum mentem loco moventem (4.

8.19). It is likely that Aquinas is not quoting from the text directly, but from a florilegium whose extracts may be corrupt.

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