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Example application using barcode development for none control to generate, create none image in none applications.upc-a vb.net To better underst none none and the unique challenges faced by sensor networks, we walk through a basic data-collection application. Nodes running this application periodically wake up, sample some sensors, and send the data through an ad hoc collection tree to a data sink (as in Figure 1.1).

As the network must last for a year, nodes spend 99% of their time in a deep sleep state. In terms of energy, the radio is by far the most expensive part of the node. Lasting a year requires telling the radio to be in a low power state.

Low power radio implementation techniques are beyond the scope of this book, but the practical upshot is that packet transmissions have higher latency. [23] Figure 1.3 shows the four TinyOS APIs the application uses: low power settings for the radio, a timer, sensors, and a data collection routing layer.

When TinyOS tells the application that the node has booted, the application code con gures the power settings on the radio and starts a periodic timer. Every few minutes, this timer res and the application code samples its sensors. It puts these sensor values into a packet and calls the routing layer to send the packet to a data sink.

In practice, applications tend to be more complex than this simple example. For example, they include additional services such as a management layer which allows an administrator to recon gure parameters and inspect the state of the network, as well as over-the-air programming so the network. iPhone Introduction Application Timer Sensors Routing Radio Figure 1.3 Exampl e application architecture. Application code uses a timer to act periodically, sensors to.

collect data, and a routing layer to deliver data to a sink. can be reprogramm ed without needing to collect all of the nodes. However, these four abstractions power control, timers, sensors, and data collection encompass the entire datapath of the application..

Compiling and installing applications You can download the latest TinyOS distribution, the nesC compiler, and other tools at www.tinyos.net.

Setting up your programming environment is outside the scope of this book; the TinyOS website has step-by-step tutorials to get you started. One part of TinyOS is an extensive build system for compiling applications. Generally, to compile a program for a sensor platform, one types make <platform>, e.

g. make telosb. This compiles a binary.

To install that binary on a node, you plug the node into your PC using a USB or serial connection, and type make <platform> install. The tutorials go into compilation and installation options in detail..

The rest of this book The rest of this book goes into how to program in nesC and write TinyOS applications. It is divided into three parts. The rst is a short introduction to the major programming concepts of nesC.

The second part addresses basic application programming using standard TinyOSAPIs. The third part digs a little deeper, and looks into how those TinyOS APIs are implemented. For example, the third part describes how TinyOS abstracts hardware, so you can write a driver for a new sensor.

by chapter, the book is structured as follows:. 1 is this chap none for none ter. 2 describes the major way that nesC breaks from C and C-like languages:. how programs are built out of components, and how components and interfaces help manage programs namespaces. 3 presents components and how they interact via interfaces. 4 goes into greater detail into con gurations, components which connect other components together.

5 covers the basic TinyOS execution model and gives guidance on how and when to use tasks.. 1.5 The rest of this book 6 takes the material from the prior three chapters and brings it together into an example of wri none none ting a fully- edged application that sends an alarm when a node observes a change in its environment. In the process, it covers the major TinyOS APIs (timing, sensing, communication, and storage). 7 details the PC-side tools for communicating with nodes connected over the serial port, and covers the TinyOS serial stack and packet formats.

8 introduces more advanced component topics, such as parameterized interfaces and attributes. While applications typically don t use these mechanisms, they are indispensable when writing reusable libraries and systems. 9 goes into wiring parameterized interfaces, which form the basis for most reusable systems.

After describing the basic mechanisms for managing interface keys, it goes through four examples of increasing complexity. 10 presents eight common TinyOS design patterns: commonly useful and powerful ways of organizing components. 11 concludes the advanced programming topics by covering concurrency.

It describes asynchronous code, the TinyOS task model, and power locks. 12 describes the Hardware Abstraction Architecture (HAA), the three-level hierarchy TinyOS uses to raise low-level hardware abstractions to hardware-independent, application-level services. 13 goes step-by-step through an advanced application that identi es the location of an event based on when nodes sense it.

It uses lower-layer interfaces to implement time synchronization and high-frequency sampling. Appendix gives a concise overview of major TinyOS application interfaces..

Throughout the bo ok, you will nd programming hints: general best-use practices that we ve distilled from the many users of TinyOS and nesC. These are all listed on the sheet at the front of the book. Finally, the complete source code for example applications presented in this book (in s 6, 7 and 13) is available in TinyOS s contributed code directory, under the name TinyOS Programming see www.

tinyos.net for details..

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