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Margaret Urban Walker using barcode integrated for .net vs 2010 control to generate, create 2d data matrix barcode image in .net vs 2010 applications. USD-8 to land through thei barcode data matrix for .NET r husbands are now destitute and dependent on relatives or social workers. War widows who were raped are stigmatized and nd it hard to remarry; widowed rape victims with children are ostracized.

79 Goldblatt and Meintjes report on the South African context, When women lose their husbands they become doubly repressed by their own community; they become women without standing, almost illegitimate in the present context of South Africa s cultural reality. The son becomes the woman s husband, even if that woman was a very high-powered political activist. 80 Displacement may also result in loss of access to land and agricultural livelihoods, as well as to trade, either in the place of exile or upon return.

The poverty that results may be what stymies possibilities of a stable future that were not precluded by the fact of displacement alone. Women are almost invariably responsible for dependent children s sustenance and welfare, irrespective of external changes in women s abilities to secure food, clothing, and shelter, and to provide for education or other signi cant needs that may determine their children s future, and by consequence their own future welfare. The pathetic situation of women and children raped and killed because they have to go beyond the protected perimeter of camps to collect rewood for sale or fuel in Darfur has been documented, as have cases of Sudanese women and girls imprisoned for going outside refugee areas in Chad, only to be raped by Chadian inmates while in detention.

81 The UN Security Council has recently condemned sexual abuse and pedophilia among its peacekeeping troops. It now appears that being female (or a child) and part of a civilian population in need of international protection is an additional risk factor for sexual abuse in some areas.82 Chain reactions of loss, social incapacitation, displacement, poverty, and sexual victimization should be seen as central to.

79 80 81. Turshen, Women s Wa .net vs 2010 Data Matrix ECC200 r Stories, 16. Goldblatt and Meintjes, South African Women Demand the Truth, 35.

Human Rights Watch, Sexual Violence and its Consequences among Displaced Persons in Darfur and Chad, 8. U.N.

Council Condemns Sex Abuse by Its Troops, The New York Times, June 1, 2005. Save the Children UK reports in 2006 that based on interview studies, Liberian girls as young as eight years old are being sexually exploited by UN peacekeepers, aid workers, camp of cials, and teachers; in Sarah Lyall, Aid Workers Are Said to Abuse Girls, The New York Times, May 9, 2006. Economic and social dislocation produced by con ict can press more women into prostitution or make them available to traf ckers; reports on traf cking indicate that countries with an in ux of international peacekeeping and humanitarian workers attract greater numbers of traf cked women.

See Dina Francesca Haynes, Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending Immigration Bene ts to Protect Victims of Traf cking and to Secure Prosecution of Traf ckers, Human Rights Quarterly 26 (2004): 221 272. A United Nations policy statement is found in United Nations General Assembly, A Comprehensive Strategy to Eliminate Future Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, March 24, 2005, A/59/710..

Gender and Violence in Focus reckoning violence, .NET Data Matrix barcode harm, and loss from the point of view of reparation and social reconstruction. In addition, since rehabilitation is established in the international standards governing reparation, special attention should be paid to the social, physical, and psychological injuries sustained by women, and care should be taken to nd the most productive and culturally attuned interventions.

There is no reason to assume, and good reason not to assume, that women s experience and assimilation of harms and losses, or their modes of adaptation and life reconstruction, will be entirely similar to men s. Nor can it be assumed that all women will have a single characteristic experience in a given con ict, or even when they are victims of similar violence in a given con ict. Women of different classes, ethnicities, castes, and religious groups, indigenous women, women who participate in oppositional political movements or are mobilized in combat, urban and rural women, married and unmarried women, women of different age groups and educational levels all need to be addressed as women, as individuals, and as members of groups with particular resources and vulnerabilities.

They are likely to face very different challenges, to have access to different kinds of resources, and reasonably to expect very different social responses to their attempts to stabilize and mend their lives. In the case of women, we know that harms can be multiplied in many ways directly linked to gender, but also to gender in the context of race, class, ethnicity, political participation, rural life, or indigenous community. Finally, there is a widely acknowledged post-con ict effect that af icts both women who have otherwise suffered violence in or because of con ict as well as those who might have escaped this fate.

Several reports af rm that ordinary violence against women escalates in post-con ict periods because of men s inability to nd positive peacetime roles that restore a sense of masculinity, men s conception of reestablishing the status quo as entailing a return to traditional gender relations, or men s desires to reassert control over women who have developed economic and survival skills in wartime that challenge their traditional subordination or that put women in competitive positions with men domestically or occupationally.83 Women are themselves seen as material assets and may possess material assets that men want to control. In this way con ict itself seems to be a multiplier for women s exposure to ordinary violence in the aftermath.

But women s antecedent material resources and. Meintjes, Pillay, an d Turshen, There is No Aftermath for Women, 4; Sideris, 152; Anja Meulenbelt, Sympathy for the Devil: Thinking About Victims and Perpetrators after Working in Serbia, in Assault on the Soul, Sharratt and Kaschak, 154 155; and Duggan and Abusharaf, Reparation of Sexual Violence, 627..
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