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Two Vietnams: July 1954 December 1955 in .NET Display PDF-417 2d barcode in .NET Two Vietnams: July 1954 December 1955




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Two Vietnams: July 1954 December 1955 use .net barcode pdf417 implement toinsert pdf417 for .net data matrix The voting went forwar PDF 417 for .NET d without disruption. Voter turnout exceeded ninety percent except in the few places where the Hoa Hao were still ghting.

Ambassador G. Frederick Reinhardt, who had replaced Collins in May, reported that no evidence of fraud or intimidation could be found. According to the nal tallies, Diem received 5,721,735 votes, which came to 98.

2% of the total vote. This result did not indicate that the entire South Vietnamese people admired Diem; rather, it simply demonstrated the people s lack of interest in democratic procedures and their willingness to follow the dictates of the government, as expressed in its propaganda campaign and selection of ballot colors. These gures did, however, prove useful to Diem s propagandists, who used the enormous margin of victory to show the people that Diem had suppressed his opponents and obtained the cooperation of virtually the entire population, marks of strength in Vietnamese eyes.

With his non-Communist opponents now vanquished, Diem could focus on his last and most dangerous opponents, the Vietnamese Communists. The Viet Minh had begun to establish themselves in the North in October 1954, as soon as French troops had departed in accordance with the Geneva agreement. When the Viet Minh marched into Hanoi, they found the city s streets far less full than they had been in August 1945, for the city s population had plummeted soon after the handover to the Viet Minh had been announced.

Under the guidance of the Viet Minh, some Vietnamese shopkeepers and school children massed along streets holding red Viet Minh ags as the troops arrived, but enthusiasm did not pour out spontaneously. Neither Ho nor other Communist leaders delivered stirring speeches or otherwise showed themselves before the people. Explaining his decision not to appear in public, Ho said, Our mutual love does not depend on appearance.

52 Ho understood what many Western diplomats and journalists did not, that in Vietnam a ruler s effectiveness was neither reliant upon nor demonstrated by the public s visible enthusiasm or the ruler s speeches. Returning to the methods used in 1945, Ho and his lieutenants promptly compelled all non-Communist political organizations to submit to Communist control, or else disband. They jailed or executed those intellectuals and political leaders suspected of having anti-Communist thoughts.

In the North Vietnamese highlands, where tribes rebelled against Communist rule, and in other insubordinate rural areas, Ho used armed force to crush all opposition. Although the Communist government had promised not to censor the press, it in fact seized all media organs and used them to publish only articles that enhanced the government s prestige. In the arts, the Communists prohibited anything that failed to propagate Communist themes, and they forced artists to confess that their prior work was bourgeois nonsense.

53 The new regime went considerably farther than its Southern counterpart in exerting control over the urban masses. Communist of cials compelled Hanoi s residents to meet twice a day for political education meetings, where they. Triumph Forsaken were obliged to listen Visual Studio .NET PDF-417 2d barcode to Party propaganda, partake in self-criticism, and sing revolutionary songs. Party-controlled neighborhood groups convened several times per week for additional political lectures.

To indoctrinate and control the educated youth, the North Vietnamese government organized school children over the age of ten into cells and replaced experienced teachers and professors with Party propagandists.54 The government shut down churches and pagodas or else replaced their leaders with Party men, while at the same time it directly discouraged the people from religious worship. In a series of extravagant propaganda campaigns, the Vietnamese Communist Party called for solidarity with China s people and leadership.

The North Vietnamese imported large numbers of Chinese books, and the majority of North Vietnamese students sent abroad for education went to China.55 Chinese personnel arrived to replace French commercial and industrial experts, most of whom had already left before the Viet Minh arrived, although a few stayed for a short time until the Communists began con scating everything that belonged to French citizens. Chinese engineers built airports and constructed railroads and highways linking northern Vietnam to China.

Some of China s best technicians went to work on a modern telecommunications network for North Vietnam. In violation of the Geneva agreement, China transported large quantities of Chinese- and Soviet-made arms into northern Vietnam, most of it crossing the Sino-Vietnamese border at two points that the North Vietnamese prevented the International Control Commission from visiting. Western intelligence services determined that during the seven months after the armistice, the Viet Minh received at least 150 pieces of eld and anti-aircraft artillery, 500 mortars, 9,000 automatic weapons, 500 recoilless ri es, and 400 military vehicles.

56 Ho Chi Minh s Communist patrons also helped him end a famine that reared its head in early 1955, a product of ooding and Communist land reform programs. Responding to desperate North Vietnamese entreaties, the Soviet Union provided Hanoi with 173,000 tons of rice, and the Chinese chipped in another 32,500 tons.57 In the middle of 1955, Ho went to China and the Soviet Union to seek further aid for economic development.

On July 7, the Chinese announced that they would send North Vietnam 800 million yuan (U.S.$200 million) in economic aid and additional technicians, and later that month, the Soviets pledged 400 million rubles (U.

S.$100 million) in economic aid.58 Neither China nor the Soviet Union released gures on military aid to North Vietnam, but military funds and goods continued to ow in at a rapid pace.

The Vietnamese Communists were amassing arms for campaigns in the distant future, not for an imminent strike against the South. For now, they intended to use only low-level subversion in the South and wait to see whether the Southern regime would collapse under political pressure from the Southern Communists or other oppositionists. After Geneva, Ho Chi Minh had withdrawn 120,000 Communist soldiers, supporters, and newly drafted youths from.

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