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nFeSi0 5 O2 nFeSi0 5 O2 + nMgSi0 5 O2 = nFe2 SiO4 nFe2 SiO4 + nMg2 SiO4 in .NET Embed barcode code39 in .NET nFeSi0 5 O2 nFeSi0 5 O2 + nMgSi0 5 O2 = nFe2 SiO4 nFe2 SiO4 + nMg2 SiO4




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nFeSi0 5 O2 nFeSi0 5 O2 + nMgSi0 5 O2 = nFe2 SiO4 nFe2 SiO4 + nMg2 SiO4 use .net barcode 3 of 9 printer topaint 3 of 9 on .net GS1 Glossary So that is n Code 3/9 for .NET ot the problem. The problem is that the choice of formulas, the mole of substance, affects the energy content per mole and hence the activity.

Suppose our system consists of a certain mass (a crystal) of pure forsterite, Mg2 SiO4 . The Gibbs energy of the system is a finite, unknown quantity, which depends on the mass of the crystal. A crystal with twice the mass has a G twice as large.

But the molar G does not vary with the size of the crystal. The molar G is defined as G = G/n ( 2.4.

1), where n is the number of moles in the crystal. The point is, the number of moles of what Obviously the number of moles of Mg2 SiO4 in the crystal will be exactly half the number of moles of. The equilibrium constant MgSi0 5 O2 i VS .NET barcode 3/9 n the crystal, because Mg2 SiO4 contains twice the number of atoms that MgSi0 5 O2 does. Therefore, GMg2 SiO4 = 2 GMgSi0 5 O2 .

Or, if you prefer, you can say that GMg2 SiO4 = 2 GMgSi0 5 O2 simply because it contains twice the mass and, therefore, twice the energy of whatever kind. This difference in the Gibbs energy of the mole is translated into a difference in activities. Because GMg2 SiO4 = 2 GMgSi0 5 O2 and GMg2 SiO4 = 2 GMgSi0 5 O2 , then.

GMg2 SiO4 GMg2 SiO4 = 2 GMgSi0 5 O2 GMgSi0 5 O2 RT ln aMg2 SiO4 = 2 RT ln aMgSi0 5 O2 and therefore aMg2 SiO4 = a2 0 5 O2 MgSi The problem this poses can be seen in considering Raoult s law, which we said was ai = xi . But if ai = a2 5i we have a problem. Because xi is independent 0 of how we write the formulas for i, we see that ai and a0 5i cannot both be equal to xi , even if Raoult s law is followed exactly.

If a0 5i versus xi is a straight line, then ai versus xi will describe a parabola. This is a well-known problem, and generally the formulas for components is chosen such that the simple statement of Raoult s law is followed as closely as possible. Again, this relationship between activities is entirely formal and tells us nothing about forsterite or olivine.

However, it is important to remember that choosing a formulas for your components has consequences for activities. The problem is more difficult in other systems. How does one choose components in a complex silicate melt, for example In a melt there are no stoichiometric restrictions to be observed, but the formal relationship between the activities of various component choices that we have discussed remains true.

So if you measure the activity of some component in a melt, and determine the deviations of these activities from Raoult s law by calculating activity coefficients, the question is, what part of these activity coefficients represents nonideal behavior, and what part represents a poor choice of components Generally speaking, extremely large or extremely small activity coefficients mean that the component involved has been badly chosen, which is to say that it does not come very close to representing the real situation in the system. In these situations, thermodynamics provides no help whatsoever. It points out the consequences of choices relative to each other, and from there on the investigator is on her own.

In other words, the choice of components, as much as the choice of system to investigate, is a part of the art of doing science, that part which relies on skill and intuition, and can never be taught.. 9.11 Summary. 9.11 Summary. This chapter VS .NET Code 39 Extended contains a sudden increase in the amount of practical, usable material. If you ever have occasion to use thermodynamics in a practical situation, it will very likely involve the use of the equilibrium constant.

The molar Gibbs energy of a dissolved substance changes with the concentration of the substance. The activity is a dimensionless concentration-like term that is used to give the Gibbs energy in a particular state, in terms of its difference from its value in some reference state (Equation 7.37).

When a reaction has reached equilibrium, the activities of the various products and reactants can have a variety of values individually, but their ratio, as expressed in the equilibrium constant K, has a fixed and calculable value. The equilibrium constant is calculated from numbers (Gibbs energies) taken from tables of standard data (derived experimentally, as discussed in 5). or r G , which is a constant for a These standard data give the term r given T and P.

It has nothing to do with whether your system or reaction has reached equilibrium ( r = 0) or not. However, it can be used to calculate K, which gives the ratio of product and reactant activities your reaction will have if it ever reaches equilibrium. The superscript therefore has considerable significance.

It should not be omitted or inserted carelessly in your calculations..
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