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Fig. 13.2 in Microsoft Office Insert Quick Response Code in Microsoft Office Fig. 13.2




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Fig. 13.2 use microsoft qrcode printing todisplay quick response code on microsoft iPhone OS pythonhtp1_13.fm Page 441 Friday, December 14, 2001 2:07 PM 13 . String Manipulation and Regular Expressions 13.3 String Presentation Strings require forma qr codes for None tting for various reasons. For example, manipulating string presentations enables users to read and understand program instructions or output more easily. This section presents two simple examples that demonstrate string-formatting methods.

Figure 13.3 uses three string methods center, ljust and rjust to align strings. These methods use white space characters to manipulate the string formatting.

String method center (line 6) takes one argument an integer value that corresponds to the total length of the output string. The method then creates a new string of this length and centers the original calling string (string1) in 50 spaces so that an equal number of spaces appears to the right and left of the calling string. String method rjust also aligns the string1 by preceding the calling string with 50 - len( string1 ) space characters to right-align the string (line 7).

Line 8 uses method ljust to creates a new string that is left aligned by following the calling string with 50 - len( string1 ) space characters. If the string is longer than the argument supplied to any of these methods, the method simply returns the original string. Fig.

13.4 demonstrates methods that strip (remove) whitespace from strings. Line 4 creates a string, string1, that contains leading and trailing whitespace.

String method strip removes leading and trailing whitespace from the original string (line 7). String method lstrip removes only leading whitespace (line 8) and method rstrip removes only trailing whitespace (line 9). As the output demonstrates, these methods remove all whitespace, including spaces, newlines and tabs.

. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 # Fig . 13.3: fig13_03.

py # Simple output formatting example. string1 = "Now I am here." print string1.

center( 50 ) print string1.rjust( 50 ) print string1.ljust( 50 ) Now I am here.

Now I am here. Now I am here. Fig.

13.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 String justification..

# Fig. 13.4: fig13_04 Microsoft Office QR-Code .

py # Stripping whitespace from a string. string1 = "\t print print print print \n This is a test string. \t\t \n".

"Original string: "%s "\n" % string1 "Using strip: "%s"\n" % string1.strip() "Using left strip: "%s"\n" % string1.lstrip() "Using right strip: \"%s\"\n" % string1.

rstrip(). Fig. 13.4 Stripping whitespace from strings. (Part 1 of 2.).

pythonhtp1_13.fm Page 442 Friday, December 14, 2001 2:07 PM String Manipulation and Regular Expressions 13 . Original string: " Th is is a test string. " Using strip: "This is a test string." Using left strip: "This is a test string.

" Using right strip: " This is a test string." Fig. 13.

4 Stripping whitespace from strings. (Part 2 of 2.).

13.4 Searching Strings In many applications, it is necessary to search for a character or set of characters in a string. For example, a programmer creating a word processor would want to provide capabilities for searching through documents. To perform such tasks, Python provides methods such as find and index.

When searching for a substring, we either can determine whether a string contains the substring, or we can retrieve the index at which a substring begins. Figure 13.5 searches for substrings at the beginning, middle and end of a string.

. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Microsoft Office qr barcode 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 # Fig. 13.5: fig13_05.

py # Searching strings for a substring. # counting the occurrences of a substring string1 = "Test1, test2, test3, test4, Test5, test6" print ""test" occurs %d times in \n\t%s" % \ ( string1.count( "test" ), string1 ) print ""test" occurs %d times after 18th character in \n\t%s" % \ ( string1.

count( "test", 18, len( string1 ) ), string1 ) print # finding a substring in a string string2 = "Odd or even" print ""%s" contains "or" starting at index %d" % \ ( string2, string2.find( "or" ) ) # find index of "even" try: print ""even" index is", string2.index( "even" ) except ValueError: print ""even" does not occur in "%s"" % string2 if string2.

startswith( "Odd" ): print ""%s" starts with "Odd"" % string2.
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