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2 Project Planning Process using barcode drawer for none control to generate, create none image in none code 39 SELLER Organization SYSTEMS DISCIPLINES MANAGEMENT Typical 2D QR Code SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT WHAT REQUIREMEN TS DEFINITION Monitor Risk Plan Risk Mitigation Refine Planned Budgets, Schedules Hold CCBs PRELIMINARY DESIGN. LIFE CYCLE STAGES BUILD DETAILED DESIGN CODING Decide Whether System Is Ready to Ship PRODUCTION DEPLOYMENT OPERATIONAL USE Monitor Customer Feedback Determine Follow-on Work Solicit Customer Feedback DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS D ESIGN ENGINEERING PRODUCTION (CODING) UNIT TESTING SUBSYSTEM TESTING INSTALLATION TRAINING . Develop Op none for none erational System Concept Define Requirements functional interface performance operating life cycle economic political physical. Allocate Requirements to Hardware and Software Define Major Subsystems Define Subsystem Structure Expand Tra none none nsform Design Preliminary Design into Computer to Permit Coding Code Conduct Peer Reviews Design Required Databases Construct Databases Demo Evolving System. Mass Produce Computer Code and User Documentation Package Tested Code and Documentation Monitor Operational Use Compile User Feedback Prepare Proposal to Respond to User Feedback Develop Us er Describe Data Flow Documentation Describe Processes Specify Quantitative Performance Criteria. Ship Package to Conduct Code Customer Walkthroughs, Unit and Integration Provide Training Testing PRODUCT ASSURANCE QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION & VALIDATION TEST & EVALUATION CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT Examine Requirements for SOW congruency testability consistency Prepare Test Plans Perform Re none none quirements and Design V&V Determine Standards Conformance Begin Test Procedure Development . Perform Re quirements and Design V&V Complete Test Procedures Examine Design, etc., for Detail Adequacy. Conduct Acceptance Testing Examine Products for Mutual Consistency Conduct On-site Acceptance Testing Baseline Products Monitor Operational Use Archive Incident Reports and Change Requests CUSTOMER/SELLER INTERACTION Management Development Product Assurance The Change none none Control Board (CCB) is a CUSTOMER/SELLER forum convened periodically throughout the project s life cycle to (1) manage product development and project change, (2) record associated decisions, and (3) manage expectations.. Figure 2 6 This six-stage life cycle gives added visibility to the design activity by dividing the HOW into two separate stages PRELIMINARY DESIGN and DETAILED DESIGN. Such added visibility is desirable when the HOW is assessed to be particularly risky. The example activities shown above need to be addressed in the project plan for each life cycle stage.

The plan should account for multiple iterations of the activities shown in correspondence with the risk assessed for these activities.. 2 Project Planning Process tion. Duri ng operational use, management monitors customer feedback and determines if there is follow-on work. The development tasks include developing an operational system concept.

Depending on the overall size of the project, the concept may consist of a onepage graphic, a detailed written report, or something in between. The description of each software function embodied in the operational system concept may simply be a one-sentence definition or one or more paragraphs amplifying particular aspects of the function (e.g.

, its scope, qualitative performance, characteristics, and/or subfunctions). For example, a requirements specification for a system to count the number of rain days during a month may contain a statement such as the following: The software shall maintain monthly counts of the number of days during the month when rain fell. As the project unfolds, the Requirements Definition Stage may be revisited and the requirements specification may be further detailed as follows: If rain totaling at least 0.

02 inch fell during the 24-hour period, the number of rain days shall be incremented by one. Various standards exist for writing software requirements specifications. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) produces one such standard.

3 This standard, first issued in 1984 and republished with revisions in 1994, defines eight characteristics of a good requirements specification. These characteristics include unambiguous, complete, and traceable. This standard provides guidance on how to write an unambiguous and complete software requirements specification.

The product assurance tasks include examining the requirements for SOW congruency, correctness, ambiguity, completeness, consistency, stability, verifiability, modifiability, and traceability. The seller s product assurance personnel may begin preliminary testing work by delineating a test strategy. The product assurance tasks include asking the following fundamental question: Are the requirements testable If the requirements are not testable, it is hard, if not impossible, to demonstrate to the customer that the software system fulfills the customer s needs.

Preliminary Design Stage Activity in this stage focuses on making the transition from what the software is to do to how the software is to accomplish the what. The management tasks continue from the requirements definition stage. CCB meetings are held as often as necessary to ensure the customer and seller agree on how the requirements are designed into the envisioned computer.

3 IEEE Re none none commended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications. IEEE Standard 830-1993 (New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., April 8, 1994).

. 2 Project Planning Process code. The none for none frequency of CCB meetings may increase just before and just after agreed-upon milestones. The increased meeting frequency helps to keep the management informed on the project s progress so that it can respond to any potential problems immediately.

We have found that when there is more communication, the customer s expectations are met more often, and the seller s insight into what its project team can actually accomplish is well understood. Consequently, the customer gets what is wanted, and the seller does a better job of estimating what needs to be done to ensure successful completion. The development tasks include allocating the functions defined in the Requirements Definition Stage to software and hardware (if this allocation was not performed in the Requirements Definition Stage).

The outline of what eventually will become computer code is specified. Major subsystems are defined, and the top-level structure within each of these subsystems is broken out. Data-flows into and out of the system are described together with the processing within each subsystem that transforms inflows to outflows.

Quantitative performance criteria (e.g., how fast, how accurate, how frequent) are specified.

4 The product assurance tasks include verifying and validating the requirements and preliminary design, determining whether the requirements and preliminary design conform to established project standards, and developing test procedures in accordance with the test strategy. Detailed Design Stage Activity in this stage focuses on expanding the design outline from the preceding stage. The management tasks are essentially the same as during the preliminary design stage.

Management needs to monitor closely the schedules and to get together with the customer as soon as it is apparent that there is a schedule slip. Simply stated, good management is no surprises. The development tasks include prescribing the software structure in sufficient detail to permit coding.

Consider the following simple example. Assume that the preliminary design specification contains the following statement: Sum the hourly rainfall amounts [for day x]. If the sum is greater than 0.

02 inch, increment the value of RAINDAYS in file PRECIPCOUNT.. Such quant itative performance criteria may sometimes be specified in the Requirements Definition Stage. For example, a customer may want a message processing system that, because of known message volumes, must be capable of processing a specified number of messages per hour. Frequently, however, quantitative performance criteria derive from qualitative statements of customer requirements.

These quantitative criteria thus represent how to accomplish what the customer asked for and thus represent design. For example, a customer may have a qualitative requirement for display of realistic animation of human motion. From this (qualitative) requirement for realistic (as opposed to, say, freeze-frame or jerky) animation may be derived a (quantitative) software design performance criterion of a specified number of display images that the software must produce each second on a video device.

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